Top 28 Questions and Answers to Flourish in DevOps Job Interview, June 2021
Are you determined to crack your DevOps job interview on this very opportunity? If yes, then you must be training and preparing very hard. But want if you get the crux of the entire syllabus and clear the interview with flying colours? Sounds amazing right? This post talks about 28 most effective and sure-shot questions and answers that will help you to excel in your DevOps job interview.
1. What are some significant benefits of implementing DevOps?
Few of the significant benefits are speed, functionalities, stability, and innovation.
2. Why has DevOps become popular over the last several years?
DevOps has high demands presently as many organizations want to invest in it. Even companies like Netflix and Facebook are investing in it for automation and other applications. It will help these organizations in growing and expanding businesses for generating more revenues. So many big companies are adopting different DevOps practices that getting this industry even more attention. As big companies resort to this methodology, different small companies are also showing interest in it for obvious reasons.
DevOps has already got beneficial results for different businesses with better efficiency. The tech workers with the latest technology standards implement their codes faster with lesser errors. More businesses and consumers now rely on cloud technology now as it has several perks and benefits. DevOps increases the efficiency of the cloud. All the companies and organizations that are to resort to DevOps are supposed to be benefitted over the years. The long-term benefits are immense.
3. What differentiates between Puppet and Ansible?
DevOps experts manage a great number of servers to get exponential growth in cloud computing and virtualization. Ansible and Puppet are considered to be very useful tools in order to manage so many servers simultaneously.
They are aka Remote Execution and the Configuration Management system that can control thousands of servers simultaneously. The admins get to execute different commands on various servers together. Some of the differences between these tools are given below.
1. Puppet is not as good as Ansible in providing scalability.
2. Ansible has simple and convenient scalability.
Management and scheduling
1. Configuration is pulled in Puppet from the chosen server.
2. In case of Ansible, the configuration is pushed to nodes from the server for effective use of the code.
1. Ruby and other declarative languages are used for configuration.
2. Published in Python and utilized YAML syntax for writing configurations.
Availability during failures
1. In puppet, in case of master server failure, there are other master servers as backup.
2. In Ansible, subordinate nodes are there if there is a nodal failure.
1. Its repository is Puppet forged, which has 6000 modules.
2. Its repository is Ansible Galaxy that can store all information.
4. What are the advantages of VCS (Version Control System)?
The advantages are:
1. Workers can access files any time they want. This also enables the proper merging of every alteration made in a common version.
2. This is beneficial for multiple people as they can collaboratively edit the text files making sharing easy among several computers.
3. It is efficient for the documents that need revision and redrafting, as has audit rail to redraft and update the final version.
4. Project members can access a full history of a project if there is a breakdown in a central server.
5. Previous variants and versions are properly packed up inside VCS. One is allowed to request for any version or variant at any time for getting information about previous complete projects.
5. What are various components seen in Selenium?
Selenium is such a useful open-source tool that is perfectly utilized to automate various web applications. It happens to have 4 different major components that generally help in running different test cases. The 4 major components of Selenium are described below.
Selenium WebDriver: As an extension of the Selenium RC, this supports the latest browsers and other platforms. This is created for supporting essential web pages where different elements present are to change without really reloading the page. It is known to directly call the browser for an automation process.
Selenium GRID: This tool runs several test cases against various machines and browsers in parallel. Different nodes may not be fixed in the grid, and this issue can really be launched on different platforms and browsers. This is to be utilized alongside Selenium RC.
6. Why is configuration management needed in DevOps?
It helps to automate several tedious and time-consuming tasks of an organization. It improves the process of service/product by streamlining different things and brings consistency in different phases of a project. The aspect is really considered to be quite important and significant, to say the least.
7. What is AWS significant in DevOps?
AWS supports the automation of manual processes and tasks to help the developers in building more efficient and faster applications. Processes like container management, configuration management, and test workflows are automated.
8. What differentiates between a distributed and centralized version control system (VCS)?
In Distributed VCS, every team member has their own repository that works as a mirror of the central repository. This is flexible as one is allowed to work offline. You only need to be online to make final changes to the central system making it faster.
In centralized VCS, the repository is generally located in a central location that clients can access. The repository always stays updated as changes are directly made to the central system. It enables clients to have access of the latest code.
9. Explain significant differences between Git fetch and Git pull?
command for utilizing this distinct feature is git fetch <remote>
It is to Fetch changes from a remote repository, but this doesn’t merge with the local repository.
The local repository remains unchanged, but the central repository remains updated.
Developers see alterations made by the others before pushing their alterations for the integration.
command for utilizing this unique feature is git pull <remote><branch>
It is to fetch changes of the branch from the remote repository and then merge with the local repository. pull = fetch + merge
Alterations from the central repository get updated in local repository.
Developers are to first bring the latest files locally and then get to start updating them.
10. What git stash really is?
Git Stash is a useful command that is used to save changes temporarily in the working directory. Thus, developers get a clean directory for working on. The changes can later be merged in the git workflow. This command makes changes in tracked files merged in the working directory. It can be used multiple times.
11. What merge conflict in Git really is, and how can this be resolved?
When several people make several changes in a single file simultaneously, then it creates merge conflict in Git. For resolving this, one needs to create a Git repo, create a branch, add a file and then make changes. Merging a new branch into a master is the next step. Upon doing this, Git is to show differences in different versions of the file. It also shows the places where edits are required.
12. What are the basic differences between Agile and DevOps?
Apart from having few similarities, these two have several basic differences that are described below.
Practices and Processes: Agile Kanban and Agile Scrum are some processes used by Agile, while DevOps are to use several processes like CT (Continuous Testing), CI (Continuous Integration), and CD (Continuous Delivery).
Agile Approach: The development phase in Agile only uses this approach, while DevOps’ operations and development phases are to use this approach.
Priority: Agile is to prioritize timescales while DevOps shows equal priority to quality and timeline.
Release Cycle: Agile provides smaller release cycles without any immediate feedback, while DevOps has release cycles with immediate feedback.
Feedback Source: Customer feedbacks are important for Agile, while self-monitoring feedbacks are essential in DevOps.
13. What is the necessity of DevOps?
Businesses nowadays prefer to release various small features to its consumers through series of release trains over releasing big features together. It has different benefits such as fast consumer feedbacks and better software quality.
Customer satisfaction is the ultimate goal of this. In this regard, businesses require to do:
• Have faster recovery time
• Lessen the lead time between fixes
• Increase the deployment frequency
• The lower failure rate of the new release.
DevOps fulfills these requirements in achieving smooth software delivery. Big corporations like Google and Amazon have effectively resorted to DevOps to get better performance. With this technology, various companies are to accomplish thousands of deployments in a day. They also get stability, security, and reliability.
14. What are some significant technical and business benefits of utilizing DevOps?
• Better solution
• Faster software delivery
• Lesser complex problems
• More time to add value to a product
• Quicker delivery of the features
• The higher stability of the operating environment
15. What are some most-used DevOps tools?
Ansible: An application deployment and configuration management tool.
Docker: An effective containerization tool.
Git: A VCS (Version Control System) tool.
Jenkins: A CI (Continuous Integration) tool.
Jira: Agile team collaboration tool.
Nagios: A tool for continuous monitoring.
16. What is the usage of Selenium?
The usage of Selenium lies in continuous testing in the DevOps. The regression and functional form of testing is the specialized segment of this tool.
17. What is Puppet in DevOps?
This configuration management tool automates administration tasks. Puppet uses Master-Slave architecture where two entities are to communicate via some encrypted channel.
System admins perform various repetitive tasks like installing and configuring servers. In case of large infrastructure, configuration management is needed to prevent it from becoming hectic.
Puppet helps to configure, deploy and manage the server. It makes these tasks easier and reduces total work time. This tool:
• Defines the distinct configuration for hosts
• Also, does the dynamic scaling of the machines
• Controls configured machines to make centralized change propagate to everywhere.
18. What are containers?
It is nothing but some form of lightweight virtualization which offers isolation among various processes. The containers are lighter than the hypervisor and heavier than the chroot.
19. Microservices are known to be a core part of DevOps. Name two popular Java development frameworks to create microservices
Different Java frameworks are that allow the creation of micro-services. Spring Boot and Eclipse Micro Profile are two very popular Java development frameworks utilized in DevOps.
20. Define Version Control System (VCS)and its uses.
It is such a system that can effectively record alterations made to a file over time. Mercurial and Git are two leading VCS. Few uses of this system are:
• It checks the last modification that is to cause some problem
• It compares changes and alterations made over the time
• It reverts files to its earlier states
21. Explain the basic premise of the DevOps?
DevOps can be regarded as a cultural shift where operation and collaboration teams are to work together during the service or product life cycle.
22. Which distinct methodology DevOps is known to have related with?
This process is known to be related to the Agile methodology.
23. Define few priorities in the DevOps?
Few priorities in the DevOps are teamwork, communication and resource management, etc.
24. What do you understand by Forking Workflow?
With Forking Workflow, all the developers get service side repositories. Hence, they become able to support open source projects.
25. What Git rebase really is?
It is known to be such an effective command that is basically designed for integrating changes from one branch to the other branch.
26. Explain Jenkins Pipeline
It is nothing but some kind of suit of plug-ins that effectively support the implementation and integration of Jenkin’s continuous delivery pipeline.
27. What is known to be a Puppet Module?
Puppet Module is considered a collection of manifests and the data that includes facts, templates, and files having a particular directory structure.
28. What are the different categories of the Ansible in DevOps?
Two main categories of Ansible are seen in DevOps, such as:
• Controlling Machines
DevOps in itself is a very complex subject to comprehend and in order to excel in it through the interview; you have to have better learning aptitude. The questions and the answers described above in the post are very effective and they will help you to complete the preparation for the interview. The best thing is that the questions are formed on real –life experiences and the answers are from the most successful executives working with DevOps. So, you don’t have to worry about the credibility of the questions.
All you need is the right will and strong determination to excel in the interview. In case of any query or suggestions, please feel free to ask our experts and get better help to crack the interviewing process.